Category Archives: Fishing

Lobsters Turn to Cannabalism

An adult lobster eats a tethered juvenile lobster (as indicated by the arrows) in these handout pictures taken from an infrared camera on the ocean floor near Maine. Graduate student Noah Oppenheim, has been documenting the phenomenon using a special infrared camera that allows him to observe a juvenile lobster tethered with a rope to a spot on the ocean floor. During the daytime, it is fish that typically feed on the tethered juvenile lobsters, but at night the researchers were stunned to see that most of the attacks on the small lobsters were by their larger brethren. REUTERS/Gregory Oppenheim/Handout

An adult lobster eats a tethered juvenile lobster (as indicated by the arrows) in these handout pictures taken from an infrared camera on the ocean floor near Maine. Graduate student Noah Oppenheim, has been documenting the phenomenon using a special infrared camera that allows him to observe a juvenile lobster tethered with a rope to a spot on the ocean floor. During the daytime, it is fish that typically feed on the tethered juvenile lobsters, but at night the researchers were stunned to see that most of the attacks on the small lobsters were by their larger brethren. REUTERS/Gregory Oppenheim/Handout

Off the coast of the USA, big lobsters have started eating their little brethren in a move never before recorded in the wild.

This is a fascinating case study of population change in the face of climate change and overfishing. And this time it’s about a population that is not only surviving – it’s changing behaviour too.

Warming waters in the Gulf of Maine and decreased predators due to overfishing have led to a huge population increase in recent years. A record 104 million pounds (45 million kilograms) were caught in 2011, compared with 23 million pounds in 1981. 2012 is expected to be even higher.

Lobsters are no stranger to aggressive interaction: they will attack each other when confined in a small space. But now encounters with each other in the Gulf of Maine are becoming so frequent that a predator-prey interaction has come about.

In a study by researchers from the University of Maine, they found that fish were the main lobster predator during the day. But the populations of cod, halibut and other groundfish that feed on lobsters has declined due to overfishing, and in a surprising find, 90% of predation on juvenile lobsters at night was due to older, bigger lobsters feeding on their younger brethren.

The Maine researchers believe this is the first time such behaviour has been visually documented in the wild, although Canadian researchers have also recently found evidence of cannabilism by examining lobster stomach content.

In an interesting contrast, warming waters have led to more disease and lower populations in Long Island Sound and southern New England. The increased abundance (and thus lower cost) of Maine lobster has also led to tensions with Canadian fishermen.

To read the original article from Reuters, click here.

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The Deadly Diner – Dolphins versus Trawl Nets

When your food is easier to catch, how much risk would you take to get some?

Researchers in Australia have found that certain dolphins repeatedly brave the dangers of actively fishing trawls to get to the prize… with a potentially lethal result.

Dolphins fishing in trawl nets. Image: Murdoch University

The dolphins of the Pilbara fishing grounds are known to frequently interact with the fishery, following vessels in hopes of an easy dinner. Up to 50 dolphins can be seen hanging around the stern as the catch is winched up. But most observations of interactions to date come from sightings at the surface by observers placed on the vessels. So what goes on in the water where we can’t see?

To get to the bottom of this question, Murdoch University Honours student Vanessa Jaiteh, with the help of Murdoch’s Cetacean Research Unit and the University of WA placed video cameras inside trawl nets in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, a finfish fishery off North-Western Australia that earlier this year was brought under scrutiny because of its dolphin bycatch.

What they found was a much higher rate of interactions than previously suspected.

Dolphins are known to associate with all kinds of fisheries around the world, from gill nets to fish farms, and are regularly seen feeding on trawl discards after a catch has been winched up. But what we now know is they also take advantage of the active fishing gear to grab an easy meal too.

Jaiteh et al.‘s study found that “Dolphins were present outside the net in 94% of all assessed trawls and for up to 99% of the duration of an individual trawl. [Dolphins also] entered the net during 81% of all trawls and were present inside the net for up to 98% of the trawl duration.”

It didn’t matter how many dolphins were in the net (although they did like to be the ‘first ones in’): inside, individuals were mostly foraging… or chasing other dolphins. The trawl nets provided an easy fishing ground for the opportunistic individual, whereby large numbers of potential prey could be found in one area, and also because the “net’s surface provides a barrier against which dolphins can chase and catch fish”. Outside, some fish escaped the trawl by swimming underneath it, but other dolphins were clever enough to find these prey too.

The cameras also captured some dolphins exhibiting a strange behaviour, ‘trampolining’, in which individuals repeatedly bounced against the net, turning and twisting their bodies and sometimes rubbing against it deliberately.  The researchers think this could be a way for the dolphins to remove old skin or parasites… or maybe just playful investigation. Either way, it shows an additional use the dolphins make of the nets, which only increases the concern about their interactions.

Taking risks

Up to 50 dolphins were seen around the trawl vessels when the catch was hauled in, which is likely to represent only a small part of the Pilbara local population. It may be that there is a small, specialised community within the population that targets trawlers – something that has been shown in Moreton Bay, Queensland. In addition, only 29 individuals were identified foraging inside the nets, and 22 of these did so several times during the trawl. This suggests that foraging inside trawl nets may be a specialised behaviour exhibited by a limited number of individuals – and often only when the opportunity arises.

Whilst the dolphin bycatch rate is relatively low in this fishery (less than 1 dolphin per 100 trawls), this extrapolates to an alarming 17-50 dolphins per year… With potentially many more unobserved deaths. Foraging opportunity is made risky by the potential for entanglement in the gear. In fact, “fishing-related mortality is considered the most severe and immediate threat to populations of small cetaceans worldwide”.

The current Bycatch Reduction Devices (BRDs) installed in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery consist of a grid designed to deflect dolphins towards an exit hole in the bottom of the net. But this means that a) (according to the camera observations) dolphins are actually more likely to swim forward and upward when they come into contact with the grid, thereby not being able to locate the escape hatch, and b) that dolphins that die in the nets may fall out of the bottom without being detected by surface observers at all.

The study’s authors recommended that “[the fishery] should focus on preventing dolphins from becoming caught, injured or killed in the gear, rather than attempting to prevent these individuals from interacting with the nets”. This could be achieved by developing more effective BRDs – something which the Department of Fisheries is supposed to be trialling at the moment.

For those daredevil dolphins in the Pilbara, a reduced risk of death from dinner could only be a good thing.

Further Reading:

The original paper was published in the online journal Marine Mammal Science: Jaiteh VF, Allen SJ, Meeuwig JJ & Loneragan NR 2012. Subsurface behaviour of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with fish trawl nets in north-western Australia. Marine Mammal Science DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.

For a comment from Murdoch University, see this article: Dolphins Filmed Fishing In Trawler Nets.

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How to Choose Sustainable Tuna

Greenpeace has just launched its 4th edition of the Australian Canned Tuna Guide.  For those of you out there that love your tuna and the oceans, you really must take a look for yourself, so you can make an informed choice about your tuna.

You can download the above image as an A4 poster to stick on your fridge: Click here (PDF 1.27MB)

I was involved in bringing the first canned tuna guide to the Australian public a couple of years ago. Back then, none of the cans on our shelves were sustainable, with catches of overfished yellowfin tuna, destructive fishing methods and politically poor fishing choices packaged up and sold to us with barely any labeling.   Down the line we’ve seen a complete game change in the canned tuna market, with companies like Fish 4 Ever and Safcol providing sustainable, pole-and-line caught skipjack tuna, and genuinely working towards a sustainable future.

The tuna brands are ranked according to their:

  • sustainability policy
  • fishing method used (Fish Aggregating Devices, or FADs, are a definite no-no because of the unacceptable bycatch levels)
  • species caught (yellowfin and bigeye are overfished)
  • labelling – so that customers can make an informed choice
  • support for marine reserves (ensuring long-term sustainability) and equitable tuna policies (so that reasonable economic benefits are returned to countries who own the rights to certain tuna stocks)
  • guarantee of a supply chain free from illegal, unregulated or unreported (IUU) fishing (which accounts for up to 46% of fishing activity in the Pacific)

Since the first guide was released, consumer pressure has forced many brands to change their tuna. You can now buy eight different brands of sustainable pole-and-line caught tuna, in most supermarkets.  Safcol for example was the first Australian company to commit to 100% sustainable tuna – an industry-changing move.  They also actively promote sustainable fishing methods and the conservation of overfished species.  Greenseas and Sirena are making a positive change by committing to 100% FAD-free sourcing by 2015.  But several other brands still lag behind, sometimes offering up one sustainable brand whilst making little effort across their range, or in the case of Sole Mare, none at all.

Greenpeace’s current campaign is focusing on John West.  As Australia’s largest seller of canned tuna, John West is having the most damaging impact on marine life through the 10% bycatch rate of its fishing method (FADs and purse seines).  That means they catch the equivalent of about 10 million cans of bycatch every year.

If you would like John West to step up their game and change to sustainable tuna, you can tell them here.

So check out where your favourite brand comes out – and why – in the Greenpeace Canned Tuna Guide.

Make an informed choice, and use your consumer power to make a difference.  Choose sustainable tuna next time you shop.

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